Tech Matters

TECH MATTERSbailey Metal Processing Limited - Products

  • Springback in sheet metal forming

    by Esther Mar | Dec 17, 2018

    When producing a part, either by deep drawing, stretch forming or bending, flat sheet is transformed into a design shape and dimension.  At the end of the forming process, when the part has been released from the forces of the forming tool, there is a distortion in the shape and dimension of the formed part.  This distortion is termed springback.  A depiction of springback in a simple bend can be seen in Figure 1.

    Springback is inherent in sheet metal forming.  It can be can be understood by looking at a material’s stress stain curve (discussed in the module on Tensile Testing) which characterizes the behavior of metal under applied force.  During forming, the material is strained beyond the yield strength in order to induce permanent deformation.  When the load is removed, the stress will return to zero along a path parallel to the slope of the elastic portion of the curve, which is the elastic modulus.  This can be seen in Figure 2.  The permanent deformation will therefore be less than what is designed into the part unless springback is factored in.

    Springback is dependent on various material characteristics but can be affected by tooling design.  The most important parameters are elastic modulus, strength, thickness, and bend radius.  Other material characteristics, especially YPE, can also be important.

    Material with a higher elastic modulus will show less springback than material with a lower elastic modulus.  This can be seen in Figure 2, where the unloading stress strain curve would be shifted toward less springback if it had a higher slope.  However between different types of steel there is essentially no difference in the elastic modulus so unless a totally different material is chosen, such as aluminum, this is not a consideration.

    A material with a higher yield strength will have a greater ratio of elastic to plastic strain and will exhibit more springback than material with a lower yield strength for a given amount of strain.

    Thickness is important because of how it impacts on strain.  There is high total strain involved in bending a thick material around a given radius and low total strain involved in bending a thin material around the same radius.  While under load, the total strain consists of both elastic and plastic strains.  When the total strain is high, based on the stress strain curve, the relative amount of elastic strain is low.  When the total strain is low, the relative amount of elastic strain is high and this results in more springback.  It can be imagined that a very thin material could be bent around a radius with zero plastic strain.  In this case the strain would be so low that it would be entirely elastic and the material would completely spring back to its original shape after the load is removed. Conversely a very thick material being bent over the same radius would show a very high total strain.  The absolute value of the elastic portion of the strain would be similar to that of the thin material but it would be insignificant compared to the plastic portion of the strain.  Therefore the thick material would show very little springback. 

    Another material characteristic worth mentioning is the Yield Point Elongation (YPE).  YPE is the strain associated with discontinuous yielding that can occur when steel is placed in tension.  It is well demonstrated that steel showing a pronounced YPE shows less springback that steel with no YPE. In the case of steel with a high YPE more of the stress is used to concentrate thinning locally resulting in a lower proportion of total strain that is elastic and hence less springback.  One would think that this parameter can be used to effectively reduce springback.  However that is not always the case because YPE is variable, between coils, within coils, and is directional, so its effects can be variable.  In general variability can be more problematic than the absolute value of springback.

    Methods of addressing springback include process design and part design.  In terms of the process, overbending, retarding metal flow due by use of draw beads and higher binder pressure, using lower press speeds, restriking, applying tension during bending, using tighter die clearances, are all techniques that are used.  In terms of part design, by utilizing tooling configurations that force higher strain over a small area springback can be minimized.

    As well there are angle compensation feedback mechanisms that are able to make automatic adjustments for each piece.

    Finally there are modeling techniques that attempt to analyze three dimensional parts so that the tooling can be designed to compensate for springback. 


    Figure 1.  Elastic Springback  (the change in the angle from start to finish of the forming process)

                      (r = radius, a = angle, s = start, f = finish)      

     Figure 2.  Strain and Stress Behaviour During the Forming Process
  • I-Units – A Standard for Determining Flatness

    by Esther Mar | Aug 29, 2018

    Flatness can be a confusing subject.  People know when they see a shape condition that will give them trouble but they sometimes don’t describe it accurately and often don’t specify their requirement in a meaningful way.  The industry uses terms such as commercial flat, half standard, flatness critical, restricted flatness or panel flat but these terms are vague.  ASTM standard specifications contain flatness tolerances that are only based on maximum deviation from a horizontal flat surface, although they do refer to two alternative methods for flatness determination, I-Units and % Steepness, contained in ASTM A1030.

    I-Units is an exacting quantitative flatness measurement.  It is a dimensionless number that incorporates both the height (H) and peak to peak length (L, or P in the diagram below) of a repeating wave.


    The formula for I-Units is as follows:        

    I = [(3.1415 x H)/2L]2 x 10

    Simplified, I = 2.467[H/L]2 x 105

    For example:  a sheet with a 1/16” high wave which repeats every 12” would have an I-Unit value of 6.7.

    There are several charts on the internet that provide the calculated values for a given H and L.

  • Mils vs. Microns

    by Esther Mar | Aug 22, 2018


    Mil -
    A unit of measurement in the English system that is measured in thousandths of an inch.

    (i.e., .001″ = one thousandth of an inch or 1.0 mil)


    Micron - A unit of measurement in the metric system that is equal to one thousandth of a millimeter.

    (also called a micrometer, abbreviated ‘μm’)


    For the conversion:

    Mils to Microns: (Number of Mils) x 25.4 (i.e., 0.75 mil = 19 microns)

    Microns to Mils: (Number of Microns) / 25.4 (i.e., 14 microns = .55 mil)

  • Transit Abrasion on Galvanized Sheet

    by Esther Mar | Jul 05, 2018

    Galvanized sheet sometimes exhibits a surface imperfection that appears as short black marks, usually in patches.  This condition has several names in addition to transit abrasion including fretting corrosion, friction oxidation, wear oxidation and chafing.  These terms refer to the root cause of the problem, which is related to friction between contact points, similar to galling. The condition is characterized by a mirror image on the reverse side of the sheet. The reason the term corrosion or oxidation is used is that this imperfection is associated with the buildup of oxide particles.

    Fretting corrosion is the most technical name.  It refers to corrosion damage at the high points of contact surfaces.  It occurs under load, under conditions of repeated relative motion of the surfaces in contact with each other, and these two conditions must be sufficient to produce deformation of the surface, which is likely with galvanized sheet because the zinc coating is fairly soft. This mechanism can affect any two surfaces that are not intended to move against each other and, in the case of machinery, can prematurely wear out parts.

    Fretting corrosion has been observed on galvanized steel in both coil form and bundles of cut lengths.  This condition is never seen on the galvanizing line, almost always being found in a customer’s plant.  The repeated motion comes from vibrations that occur during shipment of the product.  The condition is rare in the case of truck shipments, generally being prevalent when product is transported by train and ship where it incurs vibrations for long periods of time. The load comes from the weight of the coil (or stack of sheets).  This is why transit abrasion is observed mostly on the outer portion of the coil at the bottom half of it (or bottom portion of the bundle).

    There are measures that can prevent or minimize transit abrasion, all targeting reducing load or minimizing friction.  Actions that are very effective are designing support saddles to reduce concentrated point loading on the bottom of coils and avoiding stacking during transit.  Other measures are reducing the coil size and oiling the material, although these methods are not always practical or possible.

    There are two mechanisms that operate to produce fretting corrosion:  wear-oxidation and oxidation-wear. The first proposes that cold welding occurs at the contact points with small fragments of metal being removed and that these immediately oxidize.  The second proposes that the normal oxide layer already present on the galvanized sheet is ruptured at the high points under load and vibration, thus producing oxide particles. 

    Fretting corrosion is a cosmetic condition. There is no evidence that it is detrimental to the corrosion resistance of the galvanized sheet.



  • Thickness Expectations in Sheet Products

    by Esther Mar | Jun 22, 2018

    There is a book I am hoping to locate and read called “Ribbon of Fire” by Jonathan Aylen and Ruggero Ranieri.  Abstracts say that it reviews economic and technological developments showing how the wide hot strip mill evolved in the USA from narrow (3” max) hot strip mills rolling ‘hoop’ in the 19th century, through 4” mills rolling ‘skelp’ to 7” wide mills rolling 100’ lengths by 1890.  Widths and lengths rolled slowly progressed - 24” wide and 500 – 1000’ long - and then a breakthrough was made in 1923 by an engineer at Armco and in January 1924 the first 36” wide hot strip was rolled in the multi stand mill in the Middletown Works, in Ohio.  This was rapidly followed by an improved 36” mill at the Columbia Steel Co. at Butler Pennsylvania, which soon was widened to 48”.  The main innovation of this mill was a four high finishing stand using a small diameter work roll supported by a larger back up roll, this enabling greater reduction between passes.  It is from this mill design that all future wide hot strip mills developed. 

    From the technology of the four high mill stand stems the understanding of gauge performance of sheet products.  I say “sheet products” because as the product range of these mills increased, governing bodies differentiated between “sheet” and “strip”, the latter being rolled in narrow mills.  For example, ASTM A568 (Steel, Sheet, Carbon, Structural and High-Strength, Low-Alloy, Hot-Rolled and Cold-Rolled, General Requirement for) classifies “hot rolled strip” as material with mill edges 12” and less in width.  “Hot rolled sheet” is further reduced in wide cold reduction mills to produce “cold rolled sheet”.  But “cold rolled strip” is rolled in “strip mills” that are narrow cold mills.  The raw material for it is generally “hot rolled sheet” that has been pickled and slit into narrow widths.  The end product has thickness variation which is less than sheet mill industry tolerances and is often produced to custom characteristics.

    The following text deals with thickness variation in hot rolled and cold rolled sheet but uses the term “strip” because it is the commonly used terminology in the trade.

    The process of creating a finished flat rolled product from a slab consists of several stages.  These stages in a typical hot rolling mill are: reheating the slab, roughing, finishing, measuring, cooling, and coiling. As the hot steel travels through the process its thickness is successively reduced in the various mill stands. 


    The finishing process gives the strip its final dimensions.  The strip thickness (and flatness) is measured in real time by X-Ray gauges at the exit of the finishing stands.  Measuring the final dimensions of the strip is critical for the mill controllers as they adjust the mill parameters in real time with feedback from the gauges to minimize variation in thickness (and shape).

    The concept of the mill stand mentioned at the end of the first paragraph is shown below. A stand like this is several stories high. It is composed of  a set of work rolls between which the strip passes, a set of backup rolls, which are bigger, and actuators to control the gap and the bending of the rolls, all supported by a frame.


    Rolls consist of two parts:  barrel and neck.  The barrel is the part of the roll that comes into contact with the strip or another roll.  The neck is the thinner portion of the roll, part of which rests in a bearing.  The bearing is held by a chock which is connected to the stand frame.  As the hot strip travels through the stands there is force on the rolls which causes their deflection and resulting strip deformation.  This force, as well as other factors (including roll thermal profile, roll wear, strip width) affects the cross width dimensions of the strip.  The resulting cross section of the strip looks as in the schematic below.


    Most mills refer to the overall cross width configuration as the “profile” which is composed of the edge drop off, or feather, and the crown.  The crown is the difference in thickness between the thickness at the centre of the strip and the thickness at the end of the edge drop off, or feather (usually about 2” in from the mill edge). 

    The profile of the strip is generally consistent from the lead end of the coil to the trail end of the coil although it can vary towards the coil ends.  Separately, there are methods in modern hot strip mills that are used to control the shape of the strip (both in terms of flatness and crown).  These include:  roll bending, roll shifting, and inflating roll (variable crown roll).

    When hot rolled strip is cold reduced the aspect ratio of the hot strip profile is maintained but the magnitude is proportionally smaller in the cold rolled product.

    The following table from ASTM A568/A568M – 13a provides the tolerances for hot rolled sheet steel.  The tolerances include variation along the coil length and across the coil width.  The variation attributable to the profile can be in the order of 1 – 5% of the average thickness depending on a variety of factors.